China has 101 Tusi sites but the sites scattered around three provinces are inscribed as the newest UNESCO World Heritages:
1) The Laosicheng Site in Youngshun county, Hunan province;
2) The Hailongtun Site in Zunyi, Guizhou province;
3) The Tangyacheng Site in Hubei province.
The Tusi refers to the hereditary tribal leaders who were delegated to rule ethnic minority regions in south-central and south-west areas of the country.
While the Tusi were first appointed in the Yuan Dynasty, which began in 1271, most of the listed Tusi structures were built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), according to China Daily.
The best preserved out of three sites is one located in Yongshun county in Central Hunan Province which is 600 years old. This site has a temple, ancestral house, cemeteries, memorial archway, judicial court and forts. Surprisingly there is a sewage network which still works.
The Hailongtun Site in Zunyi, Guizhou province refers to the Hailongtun castle which is the oldest and largest Tusi City in China. It was used mainly as a military citadel and occasionally as an imperial palace when the province was visited by dynastic officials. During excavation archaeologist found a good quality white and blue porcelains, coins, iron locks and tiles.
The 460 years old remains of judicial court and forts could be seen in Hubei Province at the Tusi Site of Tangya tribe.
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